One day in late August or early September, 1941, a 19-year-old Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot named John Gillespie Magee, Jr., who was then serving with the No. 412 Squadron in Royal Air Force Digby, England, sent a letter to his parents. “I am enclosing a verse I wrote the other day,” he began. “It started at 30,000 feet, and was finished soon after I landed.” The verse, or “ditty,” as Magee later refers to it, was a sonnet titled “High Flight,” a fourteen-line paean to the sublimity and sheer joy of flight felt by Magee during a solo run in his Spitfire aircraft. Magee’s aunt helped get the poem published in the November 12th issue of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, where it may have remained known to a limited readership had not tragedy struck.
It was December 11th, only a few months after Magee—a United States citizen who had joined the RCAF in 1940 before the U.S. entered World War II—had written “High Flight.” Returning to base with his squadron after participating in a successful training exercise, Magee’s Spitfire collided with an Airspeed Oxford piloted by Ernest Aubrey Griffin. Both Magee and Griffin were killed.
Within days of Magee’s death, “High Flight” had been reprinted in newspapers across the U.S. Soon after, the RCAF began distributing plaques with the text of the poem to British and Canadian airfields and training stations. And before long, copies of the poem could be found in the pockets of many U.S., Canadian, and British fighter pilots.
The poem’s popularity owes much to the fact that Magee’s parents lived in Washington, D.C., at the time of his death. The U.S. had been thrust into the war only days earlier after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and because Magee was one of the first local casualties, D.C. reporters immediately made their way to his parents’ house for information about the fallen pilot. At the time, John’s father was assistant minister at St. John’s Church, and among the materials he provided to journalists was an issue of the church bulletin in which “High Flight” had been published. The poem was widely republished in the following days as part of stories covering Magee’s death, and it soon came to the attention of poet and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish, who immediately hailed Magee as the first poet of the World War II. On February 5, 1942, the Library of Congress included Magee’s poem in an exhibition called “Poems of Faith and Freedom.” “High Flight” shared a case in the exhibit with two noted WWI poems, John McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields” and Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier.” “High Flight” was the only WWII poem included in the exhibit, and thanks in part to the Library display it quickly became one of the best-known poems of World War II.
The Library of Congress receives many inquiries each year about the correct wording and punctuation of “High Flight”; versions of the poem found on the Web and in print often introduce minor variations not found in the original manuscript. We are able to assist with these inquiries to the extent that the original manuscript copy of “High Flight” is part of our Manuscript Division‘s John Magee Papers, donated to the Library by Magee’s parents on April 14, 1943. However, the letter that includes the poem, because it was written by Magee on thin airmail paper, is difficult to read.
Original manuscript of John Gillespie Magee’s “High Flight” (Manuscript Division: John Magee Papers, 1941-1946). LCCN: mm 79005423
A transcription of the poem follows:
Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of Earth
And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings;
Sunward I’ve climbed, and joined the tumbling mirth
of sun-split clouds,—and done a hundred things
You have not dreamed of—wheeled and soared and swung
High in the sunlit silence. Hov’ring there,
I’ve chased the shouting wind along, and flung
My eager craft through footless halls of air. . . .
Up, up the long, delirious, burning blue
I’ve topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace
Where never lark nor ever eagle flew—
And, while with silent lifting mind I’ve trod
The high untrespassed sanctity of space,
Put out my hand, and touched the face of God.
The most authoritative transcription of the poem appears in the book Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Requested from the Congressional Research Service (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1989), which is available online through Bartleby.com.
Respectfully Quoted‘s entry for the poem notes the following of reprintings:
The reprintings vary in punctuation, capitalization, and indentation from the original manuscript. . . . Some portions are faded and difficult to read, but the version above follows Magee’s as exactly as can be made out, following his pencilled note on another poem, “If anyone should want this please see that it is accurately copied, capitalized, and punctuated.” Nearly all versions use “. . . even eagle,” but to the editor’s careful scrutiny, it was “ever,” formed exactly like the preceding “never.”
“High Flight” has made numerous appearances in American popular culture since it went on display at the Library of Congress and continues to enjoy widespread popularity in the United States. Orson Welles, for instance, recorded a reading of it on October 11, 1942, for Radio Reader’s Digest. During the 1950s and through at least the early 1980s, the poem was includedin manytelevision stations’ “sign-offs” before going off the air, carving out a place in the imaginations and memories of several generations of Americans. A copy of the poem was taken to the moon by Apollo 15 Lunar Module Pilot James Irwin.
The poem is probably best-known today by Americans old enough to have witnessed the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986. President Reagan, who had been planning to deliver his State of the Union speech that evening, instead consoled a grieving nation by giving one of the most powerful presidential addresses of the 20th century, concluding with the following paragraph that quotes from the first and last lines of the poem:
The crew of the space shuttle Challenger honored us by the manner in which they lived their lives. We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and “slipped the surly bonds of earth” to “touch the face of God.”
By writing “High Flight,” John Gillespie Magee, Jr., achieved a place in American consciousness arguably greater than any he could have achieved through heroism in battle. His poem will continue to rank among the most popular aviation poems ever written as long as there are people for whom the miracle of flight inspires wonder and awe.
The Library’s original copy of “High Flight” is stored in a vault in our Manuscript Division; due to preservation concerns, viewing access is rarely permitted. If you have questions about our copy of “High Flight” or other materials in the John Magee Papers, please feel free to contact our Manuscript Division.
Story and photos copyright Elinor Florence unless otherwise indicated.
John Magee's Early Life
John Gillespie Magee Jr. was born on June 9, 1922 -- the eldest son of the Rev. John Gillespie Magee of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Faith Emmeline Backhouse of Helmington in Suffolk, England. The couple met in China where he was an Episcopalian missionary and she was serving as a missionary with the Church Mission Society.
John Senior was an extraordinary man in his own right. Born into a wealthy family, he attended Yale University and then divinity school. After graduation he travelled to China to minister at an Episcopal mission (the American version of the Anglican Church). This became his life’s work, and he remained in China from 1912 to 1940.
In 1937 he witnessed the Japanese invasion of Nanking and the subsequent Nanking Massacre. He was a member of the International Safety Zone Committee that saved hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians. At great risk to his own safety, Magee filmed atrocities perpetrated by Japanese soldiers against the citizens of Nanking, He was later able to smuggle these films out of Nanking, providing evidence of the war crimes that had taken place.
After Magee left Nanking, he returned to the United States and during the Second World War served as Acting Rector at St. John’s Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., across Lafayette Square from the White House. He officiated at the funeral of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in April 1945.
But it is his eldest son who is better known to the world.
John Senior married his wife Faith in 1921, and John Junior was born in Shanghai in 1922. Here’s a photo of the proud mother with her first baby.
John Magee's Education
John's birth was followed by that of David in 1925, Christopher in 1928, and Frederick Hugh in 1933. Proud of their origins and wanting to provide their sons with knowledge of their Anglo-American roots, the Magees resolved to send the boys to school in England, and then to university in the United States.
In 1931 their eldest son John, just ten years old, was sent to St. Clare’s School, near the family home in Kent, England. In 1935 he was enrolled in the Rugby School in Warwickshire, an institution steeped in English history. (One of his predecessors, William Ellis, in 1873 flouted the rules of football by taking the ball in his arms and running with it, thus inventing the game of rugby.)
Here is a photo of the young student, taken at Rugby during the 1930s.
Of course John came home for regular family visits. This family photo was taken in 1938, just one year before the Second World War began. Back row: David, Faith, and John Junior. Front row: John Senior, young Hugh sitting on his father’s knee, and Christopher.
John was deeply moved by the honor roll of Rugby students who had fallen in the First World War, and greatly admired the work of celebrated war poet Rupert Brooke. He was already beginning to show promise as a poet. In 1939 John won the coveted Rugby Poetry Prize for his poem titled: “Brave New World.” Here he is proudly showing the poetry prize to his admiring mother.
John Magee Joins the Canadian Air Force
Britain entered the Second World War on September 3, 1939. Having travelled to the United States in 1939 on a family visit, John was unable to return to Britain for his final year at Rugby and therefore completed his schooling at the Avon Old Farms School in Connecticut. While there, at the age of 17, he published his first and only book of poems.
It was hoped that John would follow the family tradition of attending Yale, and he was admitted for the 1940 freshman class. The United States had not yet declared war against Germany as had England, Canada and the other Commonwealth countries.
However, John was eager to defend his mother’s homeland, a country for which he felt much loyalty, so he crossed the border and enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force in October 1940. He was one of thousands of young Americans who joined the Canadian forces prior to 1941.
John received his flight training at No. 9 Elementary Flying Training School at RCAF Station St. Catharines, Ontario; followed by No. 2 Service Flying Training School at RCAF Station Uplands near Ottawa.
When John came home on Christmas leave in 1940 to Washington, D.C., his family was impressed with what air force discipline had done for John. He returned to Canada to complete his training, and in June 1941 he earned his wings.
In spite of the moustache, he still looks much like an 18-year-old boy in this photo. Here Group Captain W. A. Curtis presents wings to Pilot Officer John Gillespie Magee in June 1941 at RCAF Station Uplands, Ottawa.
(Photo Credit: Canadian Department of National Defence Archives)
John Magee Begins Combat Flying
Like so many other young flyers, John made his final visit to his home and family in Washington, D.C. before heading overseas. He was posted to the Royal Air Force No. 53 Operation Training Unit in Llandow, Wales to finish his operational training.
Here is John's official RCAF portrait.
John Magee Writes "High Flight"
While at Llandow, John flew a Spitfire to an altitude of 33,000 feet. This experience made such an impression on him that it provided the inspiration for his best-known work.
During one of these sojourns into the sky, on August 18, 1941, he wrote “High Flight,” destined to become the most famous aviation poem in the world.
He sent it home in a letter to his parents dated September 3, 1941, with these words: “I am enclosing a verse I wrote the other day. It started at 30,000 feet, and was finished soon after I landed. I thought it might interest you.”
Here is a copy of the original poem, in John’s handwriting. The original now resides in the Library of Congress.
I’m grateful to Ray Haas for providing me with the image of the poem. He wrote a book about the young poet, and you can order it by clicking on this link here: Touching the Face of God.
John Magee's Tragic Death
From Wales, John was assigned to the RCAF’s No. 412 Fighter Squadron, which was formed at RAF Digby in England on June 30, 1941. The motto of this squadron was and is Promptus ad vindictam (Latin for "Swift to avenge").
John continued to take part in the daily training exercises that airmen are required to perform, and experienced air combat in the autumn of 1941. In that combat he lost friends to the enemy, and fired on enemy aircraft.
Then on December 11, 1941, tragedy struck. It was not the end that John might have wished – a daring duel with an equally courageous enemy – but rather a terrible accident.
Flying his beloved Spitfire above the Lincolnshire countryside during training exercises, another aircraft, also on a training flight, collided with John’s.
At the inquiry afterwards, a farmer testified that he saw the Spitfire pilot struggling to push back the canopy. The pilot, John, stood up to jump from the plane but was too close to the ground for his parachute to open, and died on impact. The other pilot was also killed.
Magee is buried at Scopwick Church Burial Ground in Lincolnshire, England. On his simple gravestone are inscribed the first and last lines from his poem:
“Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of Earth –
Put out my hand and touched the Face of God.”
Poem Becomes Famous Around the World
The popularity of “High Flight” owes much to the fact that the Magees lived in Washington, D.C., at the time of his death. The U.S. had been thrust into the war only days earlier, after the December 7th Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and because John was one of the first local casualties, reporters immediately made their way to his parents’ house for information about the fallen pilot.
At the time, John’s father was Acting Rector of St. John’s Church, and among the materials he provided to journalists was an issue of the church bulletin in which “High Flight” had been published.
The poem was widely reprinted in the stories covering John’s death, and it came to the attention of poet and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish, who immediately hailed him as the first poet of the Second World War.
On February 5, 1942, the Library of Congress included Magee’s poem in an exhibition called Poems of Faith and Freedom. “High Flight” shared a case in the exhibit with two noted First World War poems, John McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields,” and Rupert Brooke’s “The Soldier.”
“High Flight” has become one of the best-known and most enduring poems ever written about flying. It appears in airports and air museums around the world. It is used at services for Remembrance Day, Memorial Day, Veterans Day, and military retirement ceremonies.
Lines from this poem have found their way into films, televisions shows and other pieces of literature, including my own novel. Astronauts have carried copies of it into space, and President Ronald Reagan quoted the poem when he paid tribute to the astronauts who died in the space shuttle Challenger disaster thirty years ago. It’s also been set to music.
Here's a video clip of actor Russell Crowe reciting the poem to his girlfriend in the 1993 movie For the Moment, filmed in Brandon, Manitoba. To view it, click: Russell Crowe.
Three nations – the United States, England, and Canada – all feel a sense of ownership and pride in the young poet. The Vintage Wings of Canada group painted a Harvard aircraft with the markings of one of the Harvards flown by John Magee during his training at Uplands near Ottawa, Ontario.
Called the High Flight Harvard, it is used as an educational tool at air shows throughout the region. Read the story of how John Magee’s original aircraft was identified by clicking here: Finding Magee.
John Magee's Legacy
As for the surviving Magee family members, they experienced the same devastation that so many other families endured during wartime. But although his life ended too soon, John Magee left a legacy beyond that of most mortals.
In a letter to the Royal Canadian Air Force, John's parents wrote: “We gave our consent and blessing to John as he left us to enter the RCAF. We felt as deeply as he did and we were proud of his determination and spirit. We knew that such news as did come might come. When his sonnet (poem) reached us we felt then that it had a message for American youth but did not know how to get it before them. Now his death had emblazoned it across the entire country. We are thinking that this may have been a greater contribution than anything he may have done in the way of fighting. We will be forever proud of him.”
John’s three younger brothers went on to have illustrious careers of their own.
David joined the U.S. Army Air Corps in 1943 and served until the war ended. He later finished his education at Yale and was an investment banker on Wall Street for thirty years. He died in 2013 and is buried in the Magee section of Allegheny Cemetery in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was married to the former Helen Rice, and had four children: Martha Rice Magee, David B. Magee Jr., John Gillespie Magee III, and Mary Moor (Daisy) Magee.
Christopher, who also served during the Second World War, worked in the import-export business. He passed away in 2005 and is also buried in Allegheny Cemetery.
Like his brothers, youngest son Hugh was sent to school in England, returned to the United States for further education and to attend Yale University, and then followed in his father’s path and was ordained a priest in England after training at Cambridge. During the past 50 years he has served parishes on both sides of the Atlantic, and currently serves on the staff of St. Paul’s Cathedral in Dundee, Scotland.
Here is a personal recollection from Hugh Magee, who was eleven years younger than his big brother:
“In the summer of 1940, the family had taken a holiday home in the town of Oak Bluffs on Martha's Vineyard, off the coast of Massachusetts. Mail had to be picked up every day from the main post office and, since our house was located on the outskirts one of John's daily tasks, as the only member of the family with a driver’s licence, was to retrieve the mail.
“On one such occasion John took me along. It was a precious time alone with him. On the way home, while driving along a coastal highway by the harbor (the road is still there) John suddenly pressed the accelerator to the floor so as to push the engine to its limit. Then, with totally uninhibited exuberance, he proceeded to shout at the top of his lungs! It was a thrilling, exhilarating moment for both of us.
“This incident always seemed to me to be reflective of that spirit of exaltation that one finds expressed in two lines of “High Flight”:
I've chased the shouting wind along, and flung
My eager craft through footless falls of air . . .
“Be that as it may, my memories of John, though precious few, remain with me and I feel especially close to him to this day.”
John Magee Featured in Children's Book
In conclusion, I especially want to thank Linda Granfield of Toronto, Ontario who is, as described by Hugh Magee, “the family historian.” It was Linda who sent me the Magee family photos, and she has written a children’s book about the young John Magee titled High Flight: A Story of World War Two. This book is highly regarded by the Magee family.
In the fervent belief that we must teach our children history at an early age, I urge you to buy this book immediately and give it to your children or grandchildren. Click on this link to order your copy from Amazon: High Flight: A Story of World War Two.
And while you are there, check out some of Linda’s other fine history books for young readers. Linda is now working on a biography (for adults) about the fascinating life of John Gillespie Magee Senior, and I wish her all the best in completing such an important project. You can follow the progress of the book on her website by clicking: Linda Granfield.
MY FAVOURITE VETERANS
John Magee's wonderful story, along with twenty-seven other original articles from Wartime Wednesdays, are now available in printed book form.
To read more about the book, click: My Favourite Veterans: True Stories From World War Two's Hometown Heroes. To order a signed copy for $35.00 Canadian, email me at firstname.lastname@example.org or call me at 250-342-1621.
You may also purchase a copy from Amazon by clicking here: My Favourite Veterans: True Stories From World War Two's Hometown Heroes.
About My Novel
Bird’s Eye View is fact-based fiction about a young Canadian woman who serves as an aerial photo interpreter in World War Two. In 2016 it was named a Canadian bestseller by both The Globe & Mail, and The Toronto Star. It's available as a trade paperback through any bookstore, and also as an ebook. To order online from Amazon, click Bird's Eye View. It's also available from Amazon's U.S. and U.K. websites.
About My Website
All blog posts are indexed by subject and title on this page. Scroll to the top of this page to see the list, and enter your email address to subscribe to Wartime Wednesdays. If you enjoy it, please share through Facebook, Twitter, email or just an old-fashioned phone call!
About My Events
You can see a complete list of my upcoming events on my Events page by clicking the link at the top of this page. You can also see a list of discussion questions for Book Clubs by clicking: Events.
CALLING ALL BOOK CLUBS
Book clubs in Toronto, Edmonton, Calgary, Wetaskiwin, Melfort, New Westminster, Invermere, Kelowna and Nanaimo have discussed Bird’s Eye View — and those are just the ones I know about! I’ve been privileged to attend some of these meetings, and present my one-hour slide show of vintage wartime photos explaining the inspiration behind my novel.
Are you thinking about reading Bird’s Eye View in your Book Club? I would be honored to join you and your book club via Skype, telephone, or in person — as long as the date meshes with my travel plans.
Email me at email@example.com, call me at 250-342-0444, or message me on Facebook at Elinor Florence-Author. Please refer this invitation to your friends who belong to book clubs as well.
You can find a complete list of Book Club Discussion Questions below. The list will remain permanently on my Events page on my website, and you can always find it by clicking here: Book Club Questions.
BOOK CLUB DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Do you have a personal connection with the Second World War, through family or friends? Did you think about a real person while reading the book?
The author attempted to create a wartime atmosphere with descriptions of clothing, music, and language. Did the time period feel authentic? Was there a detail that you remember in particular?
During wartime, the only contact between family members was through mail. Do you think the author used letters effectively to move the story along?
Was the plot predictable or unexpected? What plot twist most surprised you?
In the book Rose does something that she later bitterly regrets. Did you find her actions believable?
Did the happy or tragic incidents in the book evoke an emotional response?
Did the book change your perception of women’s contribution to the war effort?
The book described life on the home front as well as overseas. Were you aware of the extent to which civilians participated?
Did the book change your view of Canada’s role in the Second World War? What will you take away from this book?
Can you pick out a passage that struck you as particularly profound or interesting?
Can you envision this book as a movie? Who would play in the starring roles?
Would you recommend this book to others? Will you review the book on Amazon or Goodreads?
Will you like to read a second book by this author?
If you could ask me one question, what would you ask? You are welcome to email me at firstname.lastname@example.org. I may be able to visit your club, or talk to your group via telephone or Skype.
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