To read an annotated version of this article, complete with interviews with scientists and links to further reading, click here.
Peering beyond scientific reticence.
It is, I promise, worse than you think. If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible, even within the lifetime of a teenager today. And yet the swelling seas — and the cities they will drown — have so dominated the picture of global warming, and so overwhelmed our capacity for climate panic, that they have occluded our perception of other threats, many much closer at hand. Rising oceans are bad, in fact very bad; but fleeing the coastline will not be enough.
Indeed, absent a significant adjustment to how billions of humans conduct their lives, parts of the Earth will likely become close to uninhabitable, and other parts horrifically inhospitable, as soon as the end of this century.
Even when we train our eyes on climate change, we are unable to comprehend its scope. This past winter, a string of days 60 and 70 degrees warmer than normal baked the North Pole, melting the permafrost that encased Norway’s Svalbard seed vault — a global food bank nicknamed “Doomsday,” designed to ensure that our agriculture survives any catastrophe, and which appeared to have been flooded by climate change less than ten years after being built.
The Doomsday vault is fine, for now: The structure has been secured and the seeds are safe. But treating the episode as a parable of impending flooding missed the more important news. Until recently, permafrost was not a major concern of climate scientists, because, as the name suggests, it was soil that stayed permanently frozen. But Arctic permafrost contains 1.8 trillion tons of carbon, more than twice as much as is currently suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere. When it thaws and is released, that carbon may evaporate as methane, which is 34 times as powerful a greenhouse-gas warming blanket as carbon dioxide when judged on the timescale of a century; when judged on the timescale of two decades, it is 86 times as powerful. In other words, we have, trapped in Arctic permafrost, twice as much carbon as is currently wrecking the atmosphere of the planet, all of it scheduled to be released at a date that keeps getting moved up, partially in the form of a gas that multiplies its warming power 86 times over.
Maybe you know that already — there are alarming stories in the news every day, like those, last month, that seemed to suggest satellite data showed the globe warming since 1998 more than twice as fast as scientists had thought (in fact, the underlying story was considerably less alarming than the headlines). Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as “calving.”
Watch: How Climate Change Is Creating More Powerful Hurricanes
But no matter how well-informed you are, you are surely not alarmed enough. Over the past decades, our culture has gone apocalyptic with zombie movies and Mad Max dystopias, perhaps the collective result of displaced climate anxiety, and yet when it comes to contemplating real-world warming dangers, we suffer from an incredible failure of imagination. The reasons for that are many: the timid language of scientific probabilities, which the climatologist James Hansen once called “scientific reticence” in a paper chastising scientists for editing their own observations so conscientiously that they failed to communicate how dire the threat really was; the fact that the country is dominated by a group of technocrats who believe any problem can be solved and an opposing culture that doesn’t even see warming as a problem worth addressing; the way that climate denialism has made scientists even more cautious in offering speculative warnings; the simple speed of change and, also, its slowness, such that we are only seeing effects now of warming from decades past; our uncertainty about uncertainty, which the climate writer Naomi Oreskes in particular has suggested stops us from preparing as though anything worse than a median outcome were even possible; the way we assume climate change will hit hardest elsewhere, not everywhere; the smallness (two degrees) and largeness (1.8 trillion tons) and abstractness (400 parts per million) of the numbers; the discomfort of considering a problem that is very difficult, if not impossible, to solve; the altogether incomprehensible scale of that problem, which amounts to the prospect of our own annihilation; simple fear. But aversion arising from fear is a form of denial, too.
In between scientific reticence and science fiction is science itself. This article is the result of dozens of interviews and exchanges with climatologists and researchers in related fields and reflects hundreds of scientific papers on the subject of climate change. What follows is not a series of predictions of what will happen — that will be determined in large part by the much-less-certain science of human response. Instead, it is a portrait of our best understanding of where the planet is heading absent aggressive action. It is unlikely that all of these warming scenarios will be fully realized, largely because the devastation along the way will shake our complacency. But those scenarios, and not the present climate, are the baseline. In fact, they are our schedule.
The present tense of climate change — the destruction we’ve already baked into our future — is horrifying enough. Most people talk as if Miami and Bangladesh still have a chance of surviving; most of the scientists I spoke with assume we’ll lose them within the century, even if we stop burning fossil fuel in the next decade. Two degrees of warming used to be considered the threshold of catastrophe: tens of millions of climate refugees unleashed upon an unprepared world. Now two degrees is our goal, per the Paris climate accords, and experts give us only slim odds of hitting it. The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issues serial reports, often called the “gold standard” of climate research; the most recent one projects us to hit four degrees of warming by the beginning of the next century, should we stay the present course. But that’s just a median projection. The upper end of the probability curve runs as high as eight degrees — and the authors still haven’t figured out how to deal with that permafrost melt. The IPCC reports also don’t fully account for the albedo effect (less ice means less reflected and more absorbed sunlight, hence more warming); more cloud cover (which traps heat); or the dieback of forests and other flora (which extract carbon from the atmosphere). Each of these promises to accelerate warming, and the history of the planet shows that temperature can shift as much as five degrees Celsius within thirteen years. The last time the planet was even four degrees warmer, Peter Brannen points out in The Ends of the World, his new history of the planet’s major extinction events, the oceans were hundreds of feet higher.*
The Earth has experienced five mass extinctions before the one we are living through now, each so complete a slate-wiping of the evolutionary record it functioned as a resetting of the planetary clock, and many climate scientists will tell you they are the best analog for the ecological future we are diving headlong into. Unless you are a teenager, you probably read in your high-school textbooks that these extinctions were the result of asteroids. In fact, all but the one that killed the dinosaurs were caused by climate change produced by greenhouse gas. The most notorious was 252 million years ago; it began when carbon warmed the planet by five degrees, accelerated when that warming triggered the release of methane in the Arctic, and ended with 97 percent of all life on Earth dead. We are currently adding carbon to the atmosphere at a considerably faster rate; by most estimates, at least ten times faster. The rate is accelerating. This is what Stephen Hawking had in mind when he said, this spring, that the species needs to colonize other planets in the next century to survive, and what drove Elon Musk, last month, to unveil his plans to build a Mars habitat in 40 to 100 years. These are nonspecialists, of course, and probably as inclined to irrational panic as you or I. But the many sober-minded scientists I interviewed over the past several months — the most credentialed and tenured in the field, few of them inclined to alarmism and many advisers to the IPCC who nevertheless criticize its conservatism — have quietly reached an apocalyptic conclusion, too: No plausible program of emissions reductions alone can prevent climate disaster.
Over the past few decades, the term “Anthropocene” has climbed out of academic discourse and into the popular imagination — a name given to the geologic era we live in now, and a way to signal that it is a new era, defined on the wall chart of deep history by human intervention. One problem with the term is that it implies a conquest of nature (and even echoes the biblical “dominion”). And however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely have, it is another thing entirely to consider the possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the avuncular oceanographer who coined the term “global warming,” means when he calls the planet an “angry beast.” You could also go with “war machine.” Each day we arm it more.
The bahraining of New York.
Humans, like all mammals, are heat engines; surviving means having to continually cool off, like panting dogs. For that, the temperature needs to be low enough for the air to act as a kind of refrigerant, drawing heat off the skin so the engine can keep pumping. At seven degrees of warming, that would become impossible for large portions of the planet’s equatorial band, and especially the tropics, where humidity adds to the problem; in the jungles of Costa Rica, for instance, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out.
Climate-change skeptics point out that the planet has warmed and cooled many times before, but the climate window that has allowed for human life is very narrow, even by the standards of planetary history. At 11 or 12 degrees of warming, more than half the world’s population, as distributed today, would die of direct heat. Things almost certainly won’t get that hot this century, though models of unabated emissions do bring us that far eventually. This century, and especially in the tropics, the pain points will pinch much more quickly even than an increase of seven degrees. The key factor is something called wet-bulb temperature, which is a term of measurement as home-laboratory-kit as it sounds: the heat registered on a thermometer wrapped in a damp sock as it’s swung around in the air (since the moisture evaporates from a sock more quickly in dry air, this single number reflects both heat and humidity). At present, most regions reach a wet-bulb maximum of 26 or 27 degrees Celsius; the true red line for habitability is 35 degrees. What is called heat stress comes much sooner.
Actually, we’re about there already. Since 1980, the planet has experienced a 50-fold increase in the number of places experiencing dangerous or extreme heat; a bigger increase is to come. The five warmest summers in Europe since 1500 have all occurred since 2002, and soon, the IPCC warns, simply being outdoors that time of year will be unhealthy for much of the globe. Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015. At four degrees, the deadly European heat wave of 2003, which killed as many as 2,000 people a day, will be a normal summer. At six, according to an assessment focused only on effects within the U.S. from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, summer labor of any kind would become impossible in the lower Mississippi Valley, and everybody in the country east of the Rockies would be under more heat stress than anyone, anywhere, in the world today. As Joseph Romm has put it in his authoritative primer Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know, heat stress in New York City would exceed that of present-day Bahrain, one of the planet’s hottest spots, and the temperature in Bahrain “would induce hyperthermia in even sleeping humans.” The high-end IPCC estimate, remember, is two degrees warmer still. By the end of the century, the World Bank has estimated, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Air-conditioning can help but will ultimately only add to the carbon problem; plus, the climate-controlled malls of the Arab emirates aside, it is not remotely plausible to wholesale air-condition all the hottest parts of the world, many of them also the poorest. And indeed, the crisis will be most dramatic across the Middle East and Persian Gulf, where in 2015 the heat index registered temperatures as high as 163 degrees Fahrenheit. As soon as several decades from now, the hajj will become physically impossible for the 2 million Muslims who make the pilgrimage each year.
It is not just the hajj, and it is not just Mecca; heat is already killing us. In the sugarcane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, including over a quarter of the men, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. With dialysis, which is expensive, those with kidney failure can expect to live five years; without it, life expectancy is in the weeks. Of course, heat stress promises to pummel us in places other than our kidneys, too. As I type that sentence, in the California desert in mid-June, it is 121 degrees outside my door. It is not a record high.
Praying for cornfields in the tundra.
Climates differ and plants vary, but the basic rule for staple cereal crops grown at optimal temperature is that for every degree of warming, yields decline by 10 percent. Some estimates run as high as 15 or even 17 percent. Which means that if the planet is five degrees warmer at the end of the century, we may have as many as 50 percent more people to feed and 50 percent less grain to give them. And proteins are worse: It takes 16 calories of grain to produce just a single calorie of hamburger meat, butchered from a cow that spent its life polluting the climate with methane farts.
Pollyannaish plant physiologists will point out that the cereal-crop math applies only to those regions already at peak growing temperature, and they are right — theoretically, a warmer climate will make it easier to grow corn in Greenland. But as the pathbreaking work by Rosamond Naylor and David Battisti has shown, the tropics are already too hot to efficiently grow grain, and those places where grain is produced today are already at optimal growing temperature — which means even a small warming will push them down the slope of declining productivity. And you can’t easily move croplands north a few hundred miles, because yields in places like remote Canada and Russia are limited by the quality of soil there; it takes many centuries for the planet to produce optimally fertile dirt.
Drought might be an even bigger problem than heat, with some of the world’s most arable land turning quickly to desert. Precipitation is notoriously hard to model, yet predictions for later this century are basically unanimous: unprecedented droughts nearly everywhere food is today produced. By 2080, without dramatic reductions in emissions, southern Europe will be in permanent extreme drought, much worse than the American dust bowl ever was. The same will be true in Iraq and Syria and much of the rest of the Middle East; some of the most densely populated parts of Australia, Africa, and South America; and the breadbasket regions of China. None of these places, which today supply much of the world’s food, will be reliable sources of any. As for the original dust bowl: The droughts in the American plains and Southwest would not just be worse than in the 1930s, a 2015 NASA study predicted, but worse than any droughts in a thousand years — and that includes those that struck between 1100 and 1300, which “dried up all the rivers East of the Sierra Nevada mountains” and may have been responsible for the death of the Anasazi civilization.
Remember, we do not live in a world without hunger as it is. Far from it: Most estimates put the number of undernourished at 800 million globally. In case you haven’t heard, this spring has already brought an unprecedented quadruple famine to Africa and the Middle East; the U.N. has warned that separate starvation events in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria, and Yemen could kill 20 million this year alone.
What happens when the bubonic ice melts?
Rock, in the right spot, is a record of planetary history, eras as long as millions of years flattened by the forces of geological time into strata with amplitudes of just inches, or just an inch, or even less. Ice works that way, too, as a climate ledger, but it is also frozen history, some of which can be reanimated when unfrozen. There are now, trapped in Arctic ice, diseases that have not circulated in the air for millions of years — in some cases, since before humans were around to encounter them. Which means our immune systems would have no idea how to fight back when those prehistoric plagues emerge from the ice.
The Arctic also stores terrifying bugs from more recent times. In Alaska, already, researchers have discovered remnants of the 1918 flu that infected as many as 500 million and killed as many as 100 million — about 5 percent of the world’s population and almost six times as many as had died in the world war for which the pandemic served as a kind of gruesome capstone. As the BBC reported in May, scientists suspect smallpox and the bubonic plague are trapped in Siberian ice, too — an abridged history of devastating human sickness, left out like egg salad in the Arctic sun.
Experts caution that many of these organisms won’t actually survive the thaw and point to the fastidious lab conditions under which they have already reanimated several of them — the 32,000-year-old “extremophile” bacteria revived in 2005, an 8 million-year-old bug brought back to life in 2007, the 3.5 million–year–old one a Russian scientist self-injected just out of curiosity — to suggest that those are necessary conditions for the return of such ancient plagues. But already last year, a boy was killed and 20 others infected by anthrax released when retreating permafrost exposed the frozen carcass of a reindeer killed by the bacteria at least 75 years earlier; 2,000 present-day reindeer were infected, too, carrying and spreading the disease beyond the tundra.
What concerns epidemiologists more than ancient diseases are existing scourges relocated, rewired, or even re-evolved by warming. The first effect is geographical. Before the early-modern period, when adventuring sailboats accelerated the mixing of peoples and their bugs, human provinciality was a guard against pandemic. Today, even with globalization and the enormous intermingling of human populations, our ecosystems are mostly stable, and this functions as another limit, but global warming will scramble those ecosystems and help disease trespass those limits as surely as Cortés did. You don’t worry much about dengue or malaria if you are living in Maine or France. But as the tropics creep northward and mosquitoes migrate with them, you will. You didn’t much worry about Zika a couple of years ago, either.
As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation. One reason you hadn’t heard about Zika until recently is that it had been trapped in Uganda; another is that it did not, until recently, appear to cause birth defects. Scientists still don’t entirely understand what happened, or what they missed. But there are things we do know for sure about how climate affects some diseases: Malaria, for instance, thrives in hotter regions not just because the mosquitoes that carry it do, too, but because for every degree increase in temperature, the parasite reproduces ten times faster. Which is one reason that the World Bank estimates that by 2050, 5.2 billion people will be reckoning with it.
A rolling death smog that suffocates millions.
Our lungs need oxygen, but that is only a fraction of what we breathe. The fraction of carbon dioxide is growing: It just crossed 400 parts per million, and high-end estimates extrapolating from current trends suggest it will hit 1,000 ppm by 2100. At that concentration, compared to the air we breathe now, human cognitive ability declines by 21 percent.
Other stuff in the hotter air is even scarier, with small increases in pollution capable of shortening life spans by ten years. The warmer the planet gets, the more ozone forms, and by mid-century, Americans will likely suffer a 70 percent increase in unhealthy ozone smog, the National Center for Atmospheric Research has projected. By 2090, as many as 2 billion people globally will be breathing air above the WHO “safe” level; one paper last month showed that, among other effects, a pregnant mother’s exposure to ozone raises the child’s risk of autism (as much as tenfold, combined with other environmental factors). Which does make you think again about the autism epidemic in West Hollywood.
Already, more than 10,000 people die each day from the small particles emitted from fossil-fuel burning; each year, 339,000 people die from wildfire smoke, in part because climate change has extended forest-fire season (in the U.S., it’s increased by 78 days since 1970). By 2050, according to the U.S. Forest Service, wildfires will be twice as destructive as they are today; in some places, the area burned could grow fivefold. What worries people even more is the effect that would have on emissions, especially when the fires ravage forests arising out of peat. Peatland fires in Indonesia in 1997, for instance, added to the global CO2 release by up to 40 percent, and more burning only means more warming only means more burning. There is also the terrifying possibility that rain forests like the Amazon, which in 2010 suffered its second “hundred-year drought” in the space of five years, could dry out enough to become vulnerable to these kinds of devastating, rolling forest fires — which would not only expel enormous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere but also shrink the size of the forest. That is especially bad because the Amazon alone provides 20 percent of our oxygen.
Then there are the more familiar forms of pollution. In 2013, melting Arctic ice remodeled Asian weather patterns, depriving industrial China of the natural ventilation systems it had come to depend on, which blanketed much of the country’s north in an unbreathable smog. Literally unbreathable. A metric called the Air Quality Index categorizes the risks and tops out at the 301-to-500 range, warning of “serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly” and, for all others, “serious risk of respiratory effects”; at that level, “everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.” The Chinese “airpocalypse” of 2013 peaked at what would have been an Air Quality Index of over 800. That year, smog was responsible for a third of all deaths in the country.
The violence baked into heat.
Climatologists are very careful when talking about Syria. They want you to know that while climate change did produce a drought that contributed to civil war, it is not exactly fair to saythat the conflict is the result of warming; next door, for instance, Lebanon suffered the same crop failures. But researchers like Marshall Burke and Solomon Hsiang have managed to quantify some of the non-obvious relationships between temperature and violence: For every half-degree of warming, they say, societies will see between a 10 and 20 percent increase in the likelihood of armed conflict. In climate science, nothing is simple, but the arithmetic is harrowing: A planet five degrees warmer would have at least half again as many wars as we do today. Overall, social conflict could more than double this century.
This is one reason that, as nearly every climate scientist I spoke to pointed out, the U.S. military is obsessed with climate change: The drowning of all American Navy bases by sea-level rise is trouble enough, but being the world’s policeman is quite a bit harder when the crime rate doubles. Of course, it’s not just Syria where climate has contributed to conflict. Some speculate that the elevated level of strife across the Middle East over the past generation reflects the pressures of global warming — a hypothesis all the more cruel considering that warming began accelerating when the industrialized world extracted and then burned the region’s oil.
Global warming refers to the rise in surface temperature of the earth due to the green house effect created by green house gases. Global warming is a big environmental and social issue all over the world which everyone must know especially our kids and children as they are the future. Let your kids and school going children learn about this environmental issue, its causes and prevention methods using these essay on Global warming, written in English language using very simple words for students use. You can select any global warming essay given below:
Essay on Global Warming
Global Warming Essay 1 (100 words)
Global warming is a major atmospheric issue all over the world. Our earth’s surface becoming hot day by day by trapping the sun’s heat and rise in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The bad effects of it increasing day by day and causing major problems to the living of human being. It has become one of the subjects of big social issues which need social awareness to a great level. People should know its meaning, causes, effects and solutions to solve it immediately. People should come forth together and try to solve it in order to save life on the earth.
Global Warming Essay 2 (150 words)
Global warming is a big issue of the atmosphere on the earth which cause continuous rise in the surface temperature of the Earth. It has been estimated that in next 50 or 100 year the temperature of earth would be increased to a great level which would create big problem of living on earth. The highly known and most basic cause of increasing the Earth’s temperature is continuous rise in the atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Rise in the carbon dioxide level is the use fossil fuels like coal and oil, deforestation (cut down of plants) by the human beings on Earth. Decreasing number of the plants on the earth increases the level of carbon dioxide, as plants are the main source of the using carbon dioxide released by the human being (as a by-product of respiration) and other means. Increasing level of Earth’s temperature creates lots of problems like sea level becomes hotter and higher, glaciers melt, flood, strong storms, lack of food, diseases, death, etc.
Global Warming Essay 3 (200 words)
Global warming is the steady and continuous rise in the level of earth temperature. Out earth surface is becoming hotter day by day just because of some unnoticeable habits of human beings all across the world. Global warming has become the most worrying threat for the earth’s atmosphere as it is reducing the life possibilities on the earth day by day through a continuous and steady declining process.
Before planning the solutions of the global warming, we must think about the causes and effects of it on the atmosphere in order to get sure that we are in right direction of getting full relief from this issue. The continuous warming of the earth surface is the increasing emission of CO2 in the environment. However, the increasing level of CO2 is caused due to many reasons like deforestation, use of coal, oil, gas, burning of fossil fuels, burning of gasoline for transportation, unnecessary use of electricity, etc which in turn causes rise in earth temperature. Again it becomes the reason of rising sea level, occurrence of flooding, storms, cyclone, ozone layer damage, changing weather patterns, fear of epidemic diseases, lack of food, death, etc. We cannot blame any single entity for this as each and every human being is responsible for the increasing threat of global warming which can be solved only by the global awareness and kind efforts of everyone.
Global Warming Essay 4 (250 words)
Global warming is a steady process of continuous rise in the level of Earth temperature. Global warming has become one of the biggest problems faced by the world now. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately by the efforts of all countries worldwide, it would boom its effects and cause end of life on the earth a day.
Its threatening effects are increasing day by day and creating danger for human life. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, epidemic diseases, lack of food, death, etc. The only solution to solve the issue of global warming is the individual level social awareness. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide and make the possibilities of life on earth forever as usual.
People should stop producing C02 by just stopping their bad habits such as stop the use of oil, coal and gas, inhibit cutting plants (as they are main source to absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen), minimize the use of electricity, etc. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.
Global Warming Essay 5 (300 words)
Global warming is the continuous rise in warming of the earth’s surface due to the increased level of carbon dioxide gas in the environment. Global warming has become a big issue which need to be solved by the positive initiation of countries all over the world. As gradual increase in the earth temperature calls various threats as well as makes the existence of life hard on this planet. It enhances the gradual and permanent changes in the earth’s climate and thus affecting the nature’s balance.
Rise in the CO2 level on the earth impacts the human life to a great level through continued heat waves, sudden occurrence of strong storms, unpredictable and unexpected cyclone, damage to ozone layer, floods, heavy rain, drought, lack of food, diseases, death etc. It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is because of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc. According to the statistics, it has been noted that by 2020 global warming may boom its bad effects if it is not taken under control as CO2 emissions are increasing continuously.
The increasing level of CO2 causes greenhouse effect on the earth in which all the greenhouse gases (water vapour, CO2, methane, ozone) absorbs thermal radiation, which in turn re-radiated to all directions and come back to earth surface causing increase in the temperature of earth surface and lead to global warming.
In order to stop the life threatening effects of the global warming, we should take a permanent break from all the bad habits causing increase in the CO2 level and other green house gases leading to the green house effect and then earth surface warming. We should stop deforestation, lessen the use of electricity, stop the burning of wood, etc.
Global Warming Essay 6 (400 words)
Global warming is the big environmental issue we are facing today as a greatest challenge which we need to get it solved permanently. In fact, global warming is the continuous and steady process of increasing in the temperature of earth surface. It needs to be discussed widely by all countries worldwide to stop the effects of it. It has impacted the nature’s balance, biodiversity and climatic conditions of the earth over decades.
Green house gases like CO2, methane are the main reasons of increasing the global warming on the earth which directly impacts the rising sea levels, melting ice caps, glaciers, unexpected changing climate which represents life threats on the earth. According to the statistic, it has been estimated that earth temperature has increased to a great level since mid 20th century due to the increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations globally because of the increased demand of the human living standard.
It has been measured that year like 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1991 as the warmest six years of the past century. This increasing global warming calls the unexpected disasters on the earth like flood, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides, ice melting, lack of food, epidemic diseases, death etc thus causing imbalance to the nature’s phenomenon and indicating end of life existence on this planet.
Increasing global warming lead to the more water evaporation from earth into the atmosphere, which in turn become a greenhouse gas and again causes rise in the global warming. Other processes like burning of fossil fuels, use of fertilizers, rise in other gases like CFCs, tropospheric ozone and nitrous oxide are also the reasons of global warming. The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
We are disturbing the natural processes through the deforestation and use of technological advancement like global carbon cycle, making hole in ozone layer, etc and allowing the UV rays to come on earth thus increasing global warming. Plants are the ultimate source of removing extra carbon dioxide from the air and making it in balance thus by just stopping the deforestation and enhancing people for more plantation we can get success of reducing the global warming to a great level. Controlling the population growth is also a great hand towards reducing the global warming all through the world as it lessens the use of destructive technologies on the earth.
Global Warming Essay 7 (800 words) (Long Essay)
What is Global Warming
Global warming is a gradual process of heating of earth’s surface and whole environment including oceans, ice caps, etc. The global rise in atmospheric temperature has been clearly noticed in the recent years. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, in the past century there is increase in the earth’s surface average temperature by around 1.4 degree Fahrenheit (means 0.8 degrees Celsius). It has also been estimated that global temperature may increase by another 2 to 11.5 degrees F in the next century.
Causes of Global Warming
There are many causes of the global warming, some are natural causes and some are human made causes. The most important cause of global warming is greenhouse gases which are generated by some natural processes as well as human activities. The increase in the level of green house gases has been seen in the 20th century because of the increasing population, economy and use of energy. Increasing demand of industrialization in the modern world to fulfill almost each need is causing the release of variety of green house gases through many industrial processes in the atmosphere.
The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas has been increased in the recent years by 10-fold. The release of carbon dioxide gas varies according to the natural and industrial processes including photosynthesis and oxidation cycles. Methane is another green house gas release in the atmosphere by the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Other greenhouse gases are like oxides of nitrogen (nitrous oxide), halocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorine and bromine compounds, etc. Such green house gases get collected to the atmosphere and disturb the radiative balance of atmosphere. They have capability to absorb heat radiations and cause warming of the earth surface.
Another cause of global warming is ozone depletion means declination of ozone layer over Antarctica. Ozone layer is declining day by day by increasing release of chlorofluorocarbon gas. It is a human generated cause of global warming. Chlorofluorocarbon gas is used at many places as aerosol propellants in the industrial cleaning fluids and in the refrigerators, the gradual release of which causes declination to the ozone layer in the atmosphere.
Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. However, gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface. Harmful ultraviolet sun rays are entering to the biosphere and get absorbed by the green houses gases which ultimately increase the global warming. According to the statistics, it has been estimated that the size of ozone hole has been twice the size of Antarctica (more than 25 million km2) by 2000. There is no any clear trend of ozone layer declination in the winter or summer seasons.
Presence of various aerosols in the atmosphere is also causing earth’s surface temperature to increase. Atmospheric aerosols are fully capable to scatter (causes cooling to the planet) and absorb (makes air warm) the solar and infrared radiations. They are also capable to change the microphysical and chemical properties of the clouds and possibly their lifetime and extent. The increasing amount of aerosols in the atmosphere is because of human contribution. Dust is produced by agriculture, organic droplets and soot particles are produced by biomass burning, and aerosols are produced by the industrial processes through the burning of wide variety of products in the manufacturing process. Various emissions by means of transport generate different pollutants which get converted to the aerosols through many chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
Effects of Global Warming
The effects of global warming have been very clear in the recent years because of increasing sources of global warming. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, it has been recorded that there were 150 glaciers located in the Montana’s Glacier National Park however because of increasing effect of global warming, only 25 glaciers are left. Huge level climate changes are making hurricanes more dangerous and powerful. Natural storms are getting so strong by taking energy from temperature difference (of cold upper atmosphere and warm Tropical Ocean). Year 2012 has been recorded as hottest year since 1895 and year 2013 together with 2003 as the warmest year since 1880.
Global warming causes lot of climate changes in the atmosphere such as increasing summer season, decreasing winter season, increasing temperature, changes in air circulation patterns, jet stream, rain without season, melting ice caps, declining ozone layer, occurrence of heavy storms, cyclones, flood, drought, and so many effects.
Solutions of Global Warming
Many awareness programmes and programmes to reduce global warming have been run and implemented by the government agencies, business leaders, private sectors, NGOs, etc. Some of the damages through global warming cannot be returned by the solution (like melting of ice caps). However, we should not get back and try everyone’s best to reduce the effects of global warming by reducing the human causes of global warming. We should try to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and adopt some climate changes which are already happening for years. Instead of using electrical energy we should try using clean energy or energy produced by solar system, wind and geothermal. Reducing the level of coal and oil burning, use of transportation means, use of electrical devices, etc may reduce the global warming to a great level.
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