The Arab Israeli Conflict Essay Topics

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay

Introduction:

The struggle between the Israelis and the Palestinians is one of the most enduring and explosive of all the world's conflicts.  It has its roots in the historic claim to the land which lies between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan river.  For the Palestinians the last 100 years have brought colonization, expulsion and military occupation, followed by a long and difficult search for self-determination and for coexistence with the nation they hold responsible for their suffering and loss.  For the Jewish people of Israel, the return to the land of their forefathers after centuries of persecution around the world has not brought peace or security. They have faced many crises as their neighbors have sought to wipe their country off the map.  The purpose of this essay is to determine which group is the rightful occupants of the Holy Land.

Question:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Process:

  1. I.Brainstorm

    1. A.Using notes, our text and all handouts, write down all information you can about the different claims to the Holy Land on the sheet provided

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  2. II.Thesis

    1. A.After examining the different cases, state your opinion on who has the best claim of ownership in the area

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  3. III.Document Analysis

    1. A.Using the analysis sheets provided, analyze the primary sources pertaining to claims on the Holy Land

    2. B.Due Monday 3/14

    3. C.20 points

  4. IV.Outline

    1. A.Using the outline packet, write an outline for the paper that provides your planned structure for the paper

    2. B.Due Tuesday 3/15

    3. C.20 points

  5. V.First Two Paragraphs

    1. A.Write the Introduction and First Body Paragraph of your paper

    2. B.Due Wednesday 3/16 for Block 2; Thursday 3/17 for Block 1

    3. C.20 points

  6. VI.Rough Draft

    1. A.Write a complete draft of your paper with all elements of the final draft

    2. B.Due Friday 3/18

    3. C.20 points

  7. VII. Peer Editing

    1. A.Using the peer editing sheets provided, edit at least two classmates’ papers

    2. B.Done in class 3/21

    3. C.10 points

  8. VIII. Final Draft

    1. A.Write a final draft that is:

      1. 1.3-5 pages long, typed in Times font, 12-point, double-spaced

    2. B.Due Thursday 3/23 for Bloc 2 and Friday 3/24 for Block1

    3. C.50 points

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Brainstorm and Thesis

Introduction:

We will be writing an essay in which you must state your belief and support that statement. 

Questions:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/ Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Step one: Brainstorming. Fill in BOTH sides of the chart.


Step Two : Writing your thesis.  Take a minute to evaluate your evidence.  Write a thesis which answers the essay question. The easiest way to write a thesis is to use wording from the actual question.

    1. Example thesis:

      1. Land ownership is determined by a people’s ability to gain and maintain control of the land; through that reasoning, the Israelis have a better claim of ownership on the Holy land because of their take over and control of the area.

Write your thesis here:

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay: Document Analysis

Instructions:

Analyze the following documents using the analysis sheets provided. Answer the questions as  thoroughly as possible.  Some questions may not be answered.

The document analysis sheet is linked below:

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/written_document_analysis_worksheet.pdf

Documents:

  1. Document A: The Sikes-Picot Agreement

  2. Document B: The Balfour Declaration

  3. Document C: Minutes from the meeting of the Eastern Committee of the British Parliament

  4. Document D: Churchill White Paper, 1922

  5. Document E: British White Paper, 1939

  6. Document F: United Nations Resolution, 1948

  7. Document G: Excerpt from The Lemon Tree, Palestinian Bashir’s visit to his home prior to Israeli independence

  8. Document H: Map of the Partition of Palestine, 1948

  9. Document I: Strangers in the House

  10. Document J:  Statement by Nasser

Document A

The Sykes-Picot Agreement : 1916

It is accordingly understood between the French and British governments:

That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states (a) and (b) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.

The Avalon Project, Yale University

Document B

This Letter, to Lord Rothschild, by the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, became known as the "Balfour Declaration". The letter was published a week later in The Times (London) of London.

Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917
Dear Lord Rothschild:
I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's
Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge
of the Zionist Federation.

Yours,

Arthur James Balfour

Document  C     Extract fromMinutes of the Meeting of the Eastern Committee of the Cabinet (United Kingdom) of 5 December, 1918, in which Lord Curzon, the Foreign Secretary of the UK and  chairman of the committee, makes the following statement:

The Palestine position is this. If we deal with our commitments, there is first the general pledge to Hussein in October 1915, under which Palestine was included in the areas as to which Great Britain pledged itself that they should be Arab and independent in the future . . . Great Britain and France - Italy subsequently agreeing - committed themselves to an international administration of Palestine in consultation with Russia, who was an ally at that time . . . A new feature was brought into the case in November 1917, when Mr. Balfour, with the authority of the War Cabinet, issued his famous declaration to the Zionists that Palestine 'should be the national home of the Jewish people, but that nothing should be done - and this, of course, was a most important proviso - to prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. Those, as far as I know, are the only actual engagements into which we entered with regard to Palestine.

Document  D    Extract fromthe British White Paper of June 3,1922 [also referred as the Churchill White Paper]:

[…] it is not the case, as has been represented by the Arab Delegation, that during the war His Majesty's Government gave an undertaking that an independent national government should be at once established in Palestine. This representation mainly rests upon a letter dated the 24th October, 1915, from Sir Henry McMahon, then His Majesty's High Commissioner in Egypt, to the Sharif of Mecca, now King Hussein of the Kingdom of the Hejaz. That letter is quoted as conveying the promise to the Sherif of Mecca to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories proposed by him. But this promise was given subject to a reservation made in the same letter, which excluded from its scope, among other territories, the portions of Syria lying to the west of the District of Damascus. This reservation has always been regarded by His Majesty's Government as covering the vilayet of Beirut and the independent Sanjak of Jerusalem. The whole of Palestine west of the Jordan was thus excluded from Sir. Henry McMahon's pledge.

Document  E     Extract fromthe British White Paper of May 17,1939

His Majesty's Government believe that the framers of the Mandate in which the Balfour Declaration was embodied could not have intended that Palestine should be converted into a Jewish State against the will of the Arab population of the country. [...] His Majesty's Government therefore now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State. They would indeed regard it as contrary to their obligations to the Arabs under the Mandate, as well as to the assurances which have been given to the Arab people in the past, that the Arab population of Palestine should be made the subjects of a Jewish State against their will.

Document F

The resolution recommends that the United Kingdom (as mandatory power for Palestine) evacuate; armed forces should withdraw no later than August 1, 1948; independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem administered by the United Nations should come into existence;  the City of Jerusalem should preserve the interests of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faiths.

UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), August, 1948

Document G     Extract fromthe Lemon Tree by journalist Sandy Tolan, Bloomsbury, 2007, p. 207. This excerpt is from a Palestinian, Bashir, who is visiting what was, prior to 1948, his family’s home, and is currently being lived in by a Jewish family.

We were exiled by force of arms.  We were exiled on foot.  We were exiled to take the earth as our bed. And the sky as a cover.  And to be fed from the crums to those among the governments and international organizations who imparted their charity.  We were exiled but we left our souls, our hopes, our childhood in Palestine.  We left our joys and sorrows.  We left them in every corner, and on every grain of sand in Palestine. We left them with each lemon fruit, with each olive.  We left them in the roses and flowers.  We left them in the flowering tree that stands with pride at the entrance of our house in al-Ramla.  We left them in the remains of our fathers and ancestors.  We left them as witnesses and history.  We left them, hoping to return

Document H: United Nations partition of Palestine, 1948


Document I

Arab Palestinians began to leave their homes in cities in December 1947. The number of Arab Palestinians leaving their homes increased to hundreds of thousands by May 1948. During the last week of April in 1948, as the fighting came closer to their home, the Palestinian family in this passage left Jaffa for Ramallah. On May 14, 1948, Israel was established. This new country included the city of Jaffa. Ramallah was in the West Bank that became part of Jordan.

. . I grew up hearing the description of my father’s last visit to Jaffa, and it has left an indelible [permanent] impression on me. My father’s entire holdings were in and around Jaffa, the products of his own hard work. His father had left him nothing. How difficult it must have been to bid all this farewell. The image of my father, his every step echoing in the empty streets of the deserted city, still haunts me. . . .He moved on to the marketplace, empty except for a few shops that had somehow remained open. He walked passed Hinn’s, his barbershop, and found it closed. The courthouse was closed, as were the clinics, the nurseries, the cafés, the cinema. The place was deserted, prepared to be captured. What have we done, he wondered. How could we have all left? . . . Source: Raja Shehadeh,Strangers in the House: Coming of Age in Occupied Palestine,Penguin Books

Document J

Statement by President Nasser to Members of the Egyptian National Assembly. May 29, 1967

Then came the events of 1956-the Suez battle. We all know what happened in 1956. When we rose to demand our rights, Britain, France and Israel opposed us, and we were faced with the tripartite aggression. We resisted, however, and proclaimed that we would fight to the last drop of our blood. God gave us success and God's victory was great…Preparations have already been made. We are now ready to confront Israel. They have claimed many things about the 1956 Suez war, but no one believed them after the secrets of the 1956 collusion were uncovered- that mean collusion in which Israel took part. Now we are ready for the confrontation. We are now ready to deal with the entire Palestine question.

The issue now at hand is not the Gulf of Aqaba, the Straits of Tiran, or the withdrawal of the UNEF, but the rights of the Palestine people. It is the aggression, which took place in Palestine in 1948 with the collaboration of Britain and the United States. It is the expulsion of the Arabs from Palestine, the usurpation of their rights, and the plunder of their property. It is the disavowal of all the UN resolutions in favour of the Palestinian people..

Document K

Excerpts from the Hamas Charter

"After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying."

"Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it." (The Martyr, Imam Hassan al-Banna, of blessed memory).

"The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the land of Palestine is an Islamic Waqf consecrated for future Muslim generations until Judgment Day. It, or any part of it, should not be squandered: it, or any part of it, should not be given up.

Document L

The Bible. Genesis 17: 3-8

Abram fell facedown, and God said to him, 4 “As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. 5 No longer will you be called Abram[a]; your name will be Abraham,[b] for I have made you a father of many nations. 6 I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. 7 I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. 8 The whole land of Canaan, where you now reside as a foreigner, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God.”

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Outline Packet

Writing a paper should not be viewed as a one-step activity.  Rather, it should be a process that involves multiple steps that allow you to organize your thoughts in a way that helps you to write a clear, persuasive, and eloquent essay.

In this class, every time you write a paper, you will be asked to complete either an outline and/or a draft.  Both the outline and the draft will be handed in with the final draft for a grade.  I am not requiring you to do outlines and drafts to make your life miserable but rather to help you become a better writer. 

The structure of the essay is as follows:

Paragraph 1  (Introduction)

  1. The introduction should start broad and get more specific as it progresses. 

  2. The first thing you should do is to introduce the reader to the larger context of the essay.

    1. oThe first 1-2 sentences should contain background information (who, what, when, where, etc.)

    2. oFor example, if you are writing a paper on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, you need to provide some background; when it took place, who was involved, etc.  Do not dive right into the topic of the essay without giving the reader some sense of time and place (context).

  3. After you introduce the topic, you need to make the connection to your specific topic – transition from background information into what you will be writing about.

  1. The last sentence of the paragraph should contain a clear, concise thesis statement.

    1. oWhat is a thesis statement? 

      1. A thesis statement should illustrate an argument that you will prove over the course of the paper.

      2. A thesis statement should always contain brief mention of what the body of the paper will discuss in greater detail (i.e. it should summarize the topic sentences of the 3 body paragraphs.)

      3. If the question asks you to defend a particular point, the thesis statement will state the point as a fact and back it up with brief mention of 3 major reasons why it is true.  These reasons will then be the basis of the body of your paper.

Paragraph 2, 3, and 4  (Body Paragraph #1-3)

  1. Each body paragraph should start with a topic sentence to preview to the reader what the paragraph will discuss.

  1. Each body paragraph should contain three examples to support the specific point being addressed in the paragraph.

    1. oExamples should include quotations, facts, statistics, etc.

    2. oThis is where you will usually include quotations from texts and citations from readings and notes that you have.

  2. The body of your paper should be as specific as possible and should offer as clear and vivid illustrations as possible.

  3. The last sentence should not only bring the paragraph to a conclusion, but it should also serve as a transition into the next body paragraph (i.e. find a connection or relationship between the two paragraphs.)

Paragraph 5  (Conclusion)

  1. The conclusion should summarize the contents of the entire paper and should try and offer some additional insights (intelligent comments or observations) about the topic.

  2. Restate your argument – do not cut and paste the introduction verbatim or try to change one or two of the words from the introduction!

  3. Open the paper up.  It is here that you should try to do one of the following:

    1. oconnect your paper to the larger historical picture

    2. ostate its significance to the time period

    3. orelate it to later events or issues

    4. othink of other questions to ask (related to the topic)


What is the general topic of this essay?

What general information does the reader need about this topic?

(What is the topic being discussed?  What information is needed to give the reader enough background

to understand the topic?)

What will this essay explain and/or argue?

(What is your specific thesis?  Your thesis should contain the topics of your body paragraphs.)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What phrase serves as a transition from the body of the paper?

What more can now be said about the ideas expressed in the thesis statement?

(Restate, in new terms, the thesis statement.  Then add further reflections.)

What thought-provoking statement concludes the essay?

(So what?  Why is the topic of this essay important?  How can you broaden the scope of your

discussion?  How does the topic of the essay relate to the larger historical picture?  How does it relate to

later events/issues?)



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International Effects of the Yom Kippur War The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 was an armed conflict between Israel and the Arab countries of Egypt and Syria, fought during the month of October 1973. Egypt and Syria initiated the conflict to regain territories that Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. Although both sides suffered heavy losses during the 1973 war, Israel retained control of the territories. Because the conflict began on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and took place during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, the war is also called the Yom Kippur War by Israelis and the Ramadan War or the October War by Arabs. Although it brought about no significant changes to territorial boundaries, the 1973 war and its aftermath had far-ranging effects on the participant nations and their relations with world superpowers. Egypt moved steadily away from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which had provided military and economic aid to Egypt since the 1950 s, and into a closer relationship with the United States.

Syria emerged from the war as the staunchest defender of Arab rights and the closest Middle Eastern ally of the USSR. In Israel, the war increased criticism of the country's leaders, who eventually resigned. Finally, the war signaled an increased commitment by the United States to negotiate and guarantee Arab-Israeli agreements. Such agreements would center on the return of Israeli-held lands to Arab control, in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel and security guarantees. The long-standing conflict between Jews and Arabs over control of historic Palestine had resulted in wars in 1948, 1956, and 1967.

The Arab opposition to the Jewish state of Israel included neighboring Arab states and, after 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a political body working to create a state for Palestinian Arabs. In the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel gained control of the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip, previously controlled by Egypt; the Golan Heights, formerly belonging to Syria; and the West Bank and East Jerusalem, formerly administered by Jordan. Later that year, the United Nations (UN) adopted a resolution calling for Israeli withdrawal from these areas in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel's independence and security. However, neither side met these conditions, and cross-border attacks and reprisals continued. In 1969 Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser launched a campaign on the Suez Canal known as the War of Attrition. The conflict, which did not escalate into a full-scale war, ended with a U.

S. -brokered cease-fire in 1970. In the early 1970 s Nasser's successor, Anwar al-Sadat, pushed for Israeli withdrawal through diplomatic means, while simultaneously preparing Egypt's military for war. Each year the UN passed resolutions calling for Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories. Israel refused to withdraw, and the United States suffered criticism from the international community for its support of Israel. Meanwhile, the stalemate continued. Arab nations generally refused to negotiate until Israel withdrew.

Israel, which refused to withdraw without guarantees of peace and security, fortified its positions in the occupied Arab territories. Neither the United States nor Israel believed that Arab forces could challenge Israel's proven military power. The USSR, which had supported the Arab nations during previous wars with Israel and had resupplied Egypt militarily, knew that Egypt was preparing for war, but underestimated Sadat's commitment to use a military option against Israel. Furthermore, neither Washington nor Moscow was fully aware of the profound differences in policy between the Egyptian and Syrian leaders. Although the ultimate goal for both leaders was to regain their territories from Israel, Sadat was willing to combine military means with the initiation of a diplomatic process, whereas Syrian president Hafez al-Assad did not want to sign any agreement with Israel that might recognize Israel's legitimacy. Sadat, unlike Assad, also was willing to orient Egypt's foreign policy away from the USSR and toward the United States.

With mounting economic pressures at home, Sadat believed that the United States, rather than the USSR, would help Egypt more in the long term. Despite these differences, mutual frustration and impatience with the diplomatic status quo led Sadat and Assad to plan an attack in collusion. Because the two Arab leaders were focused more on their own particular national interests, rather than on other Arab-Israeli issues such as the future of the West Bank and Jerusalem and the issue of Palestinian statehood, they omitted Jordan and the PLO from the planning of the war. Egypt and Syria launched their attack against Israel on October 6, 1973.

It was Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year. With much of its citizen army in synagogues, its national radio off the air, and its people in a generally relaxed mood, Israel was caught off guard by the coordinated attacks. Israeli intelligence sources had discounted the probability of an Arab assault, and Israel's military was not fully prepared for war. Sadat's armies quickly crossed the Suez Canal. In doing so, Egypt overcame the Israeli string of fortifications along the canal's east bank known as the Bar-Lev line, which Israel had believed to be impenetrable.

Egypt established strongholds to defend its position. Aware of his army's limited firepower, Sadat did not order an advance across all of the Israeli-held Sinai. Instead, his armies took a small slice of land along the entire length of the canal's east bank. Meanwhile, Syrian forces advanced into the Golan Heights. During the first week of the war, both Syria and Egypt could have done more damage to Israel's army, taken more territory, and inflicted severe damage on Israeli civilian centers.

However, both armies failed to take advantage of their early gains, Israel's lack of preparedness, and initial Israeli losses. Irregular and inaccurate communications between Cairo, Egypt, and Damascus, Syria, and between Moscow and these Arab capitals, inhibited additional Arab military successes. By mid-October, Israel had mobilized its troops and launched a series of counterattacks on both fronts. Despite severe initial casualties, Israeli forces retook the land that Syria had captured and pushed past the Syrian border, soon making their way within artillery range of Damascus. Meanwhile, Israel launched a counteroffensive against Egypt, crossing the Suez Canal, advancing into Egypt, and surrounding Egypt's Third Army.

By the end of the war, Israeli forces had advanced to within 60 miles of Cairo and 25 miles of Damascus. However, Israel saw no political reason to occupy the two Arab capitals. The precarious state in which the Arab armies found themselves hastened the war's conclusion. It also prompted immediate intervention by the United States, which had supplied weapons to Israel during the fighting, and by the Soviet Union, which had supplied the Arab forces. Israel's threat to eradicate the Egyptian Third Army prompted U.

S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger to visit Moscow to negotiate a cease-fire resolution with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. On October 22 the UN passed the resolution, which also called for direct negotiations between the Israelis and Arabs. Israel and Egypt both broke the terms of the cease-fire, and Israel continued its encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army.

Brezhnev, viewing an Egyptian defeat as potentially destabilizing to Sadat's government, implied in communications with U. S. president Richard Nixon that Israel's failure to halt military actions would prompt a Soviet response, including intervention to preserve the Third Army. In response, Kissinger asked for and received Nixon's permission to put American troops on a nuclear alert. Both the Soviets and the Americans almost immediately stepped back from a confrontation. A final cease-fire took effect on October 25.

Israel's desire to have its prisoners of war returned, combined with the precarious existence of the Egyptian Third Army, hastened military talks between Israel and Egypt. These talks took place at Kilometer 101 of the Cairo-Suez Road from October 28 until late November. Kissinger, desiring greater American participation, arranged a Middle East peace conference with the United States and the Soviet Union as chairs, to continue the negotiations. The conference convened in Geneva, Switzerland, on December 21. Although Jordan participated, Syria declined to attend, and the PLO was not invited.

After two days of public posturing, the conference was suspended and failed to reconvene. During the next two years, Kissinger used a negotiating technique called "shuttle diplomacy, " flying back and forth between the Arab capitals and Israel and acting as a mediator. This technique yielded the first Egyptian-Israeli military disengagement agreement, calling for Israel's withdrawal back across the Suez Canal and the restoration in January 1974 of a UN peacekeeping force in the canal zone. (The UN force had been instituted after the 1956 war and was in place until 1967. ) In May 1974 Syria and Israel, with Kissinger's help, concluded a disengagement agreement by which Israel returned Syrian territory captured in the 1973 war, along with the town of Al Qunaytirah in the Golan region. It also established a UN buffer zone between Israeli and Syrian forces in the Golan. A second Egyptian-Israeli agreement was concluded in September 1975. Although the war yielded no immediate territorial concessions, it had many far-reaching effects on the wider Arab-Israeli conflict.

While Arab casualties were far greater than Israeli casualties, both sides claimed victory. The Arab forces had proven that they could launch a successful coordinated attack. With their initial gains, they shattered the myth of Israel's invincibility that had persisted since the 1967 war. Meanwhile, despite significant early losses, Israel had successfully regrouped in a matter of days, pushing the Arab forces back beyond the 1967 borders. While the war did not affect Syria's close alignment with the Soviet Union and strong opposition to the United States and Israel, it initiated drastic changes in Egypt's foreign relations. Kissinger's newly developing relationship with Sadat reduced Soviet influence over Egypt and brought the country closer to the United States.

Each successful agreement also generated trust between Israel and Egypt. Both of these developments established the foundation for the U. S. -brokered Camp David Accords in 1978, which led to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel in 1979. However, Egypt's improved relations with the United States and Israel also led to its separation and isolation from inter-Arab affairs in the 1980 s. Meanwhile, the diplomatic successes of the United States in the aftermath of the war made it the preferred mediator, confidant, and diplomatic guarantor of Arabs and Israelis alike in future negotiations.

The 1973 war also marked the first successful use of oil as a political weapon in the Arab-Israeli conflict. From October 1973 to November 1974, the oil-producing Arab countries maintained an embargo on oil exports to Western nations friendly to Israel, causing gasoline shortages and inflated oil prices. The embargo had a particularly negative effect on the U. S. economy. Finally, the war caused internal problems in Israel.

The Israeli military's lack of readiness called into question the capabilities of the country's leaders. The results of an ensuing investigation were highly critical of the military, prompting the resignations of Israeli prime minister Golda Meir and defense minister Moshe Dayan. Bibliography: Bibliography Armitage, M. J. , & Mason, R. A. (1985).

Air Power in the Nuclear Age. Urbana, Ill. : University of Illinois Press. Ball, B. (Ed. ). (1998). The River Jordan: An Illustrated Guide from Bible Days to the Present. Carta, Jerusalem: Carta Publications.

Epstein, L. (1998, September 28). Yom Kippur War: 25 Years Later. Jewish Bulletin of Northern California [Online]. Available: web bk 980925 / 1 arab 25. htm. Kimmerling, B. & Medal, J.

S. (1994). Palestinians: The Making of a People. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard U. P. Laqueur, W. , & Rubin, B. (Eds. ). (1995). The Israel-Arab Reader.

New York, NY: Penguin Books. Morris, B. (1999). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881 - 1999. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Rabinovitch, A. (1998, October 15).

Yom Kippur War: 25 Years Later. The Jerusalem Post: Internet Edition [Online]. Available: web 15. Oct. 1998 /Features/Article- 8. htmlSchulzinger, R. (1989). Henry Kissinger: Doctor of Diplomacy.

New York, NY: Columbia U. P. Tessler, M. (1994). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington, Ind. : Indiana U.

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