Article 16 Ddhc Dissertation Format

Résumé du document

Quelles implications de l'article 16 de la Déclaration des droits du l'Homme et du Citoyen de 1789 sur le système institutionnel français ?
Comment la séparation des pouvoirs a été mise en place en France, est-ce que cette limitation du pouvoir permet une bonne garantie des droits ?
L'article 16 dispose que « Toute société dans laquelle la garantie des droits n'est pas assurée ni la séparation des pouvoirs déterminée n'a point de constitution ». Au moment où il fut adopté, cet article ne permettait pas de préfigurer la forme de gouvernement qui serait choisie par les constituants. En effet, avant d'opérer un choix entre les différents mécanismes constitutionnels, les députés se contentent de définir quel sera l'objet de la Constitution future. La Constitution de 1958 se base bien évidemment et d'une manière plus ou moins directe sur cet article qui, n'ayant pas de signification constructive et ordonnée, offre l'avantage de pouvoir être conciliée avec des Constitutions postérieures. Dès lors, il est intéressant d'étudier quelles interprétations de cet article ont pu être faites dans la Ve République et quelles ont été leurs conséquences pour le système institutionnel français. On observe alors que la séparation des pouvoirs a été mise en œuvre dans notre système institutionnel, entraînant une limitation du pouvoir favorisant la garantie des droits mais ne suffisant pas à l'assurer complètement.

Extraits

[...] Le principe de séparation des pouvoirs est mis en œuvre dans la Ve République Une séparation souple classique qui présente des limites La déclaration énonce qu'une nation n'a pas de Constitution (c'est-à- dire pas de constitution légitime) si la séparation des pouvoirs n'est pas déterminée Mais elle laisse ouvertes les deux questions que posent cette disposition, à savoir ce que doivent être les modalités de cette séparation, et le nombre des pouvoirs dont la séparation doit être déterminée. En effet, l'objet de la déclaration est seulement d'exclure pour l'avenir tout système de confusion des pouvoirs, fatal à la liberté. [...]


[...] Ceci atteste d'une limitation secrète mais efficace du pouvoir. De plus le législateur, même politiquement en harmonie avec les gouvernants, limite le pouvoir mieux que l'absence de vrai parlement. Ainsi par exemple Valéry Giscard d'Estaing renonça à une vraie réforme de l'entreprise ou de l'imposition des plus values faute d'appui dans la majorité conservatrice élue en 1973. Enfin le bicamérisme, même inégalitaire, limite le pouvoir mieux que le monocamérisme. Plus des deux tiers des textes de loi sont par exemple adoptés par accord entre les deux chambres, même quand la majorité au Sénat et à l'Assemblée relève de deux camps politiques différents. [...]


[...] Il est cependant intéressant de noter que malgré le fait que la Ve République est probablement celle dans laquelle les pouvoirs sont le moins séparés c'est paradoxalement sous cette République que s'est affirmée la protection des libertés fondamentales. Bibliographie Pierre Pactet, Institutions politiques, droit constitutionnel, A. Colin ; L. Favoreu Droit Constitutionnel, Dalloz ; O. Duhammel, le pouvoir politique en France, points seuil ; Guy Carcassonne, La Constitution, Points seuil ; La déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du citoyen et la jurisprudence, PUF ; G. [...]


[...] Ainsi la confrontation de la Loi aux droits fondamentaux garantis par la déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du citoyen de 1789 ( de même que ceux garantis par la préambule de la constitution de 1946 ou de la constitution de 1958) sont soumis aux aléas de la saisine parlementaire, ce qui n'est guère satisfaisant dans un Etat de droit. Ainsi pour lutter contre ces lacunes dans la protections des droits (et donc concernant le respect de l'article accepter l'exception d'inconstitutionnalité serait nécessaire. [...]


[...] Elle ne prescrit pas un aménagement constitutionnel particulier. La constitution de 1958, si elle détermine effectivement la séparation des pouvoirs, en application de la loi du 3 juin 1958, n'en proclame pas explicitement le principe. Ainsi, dans l'état actuel du droit, la seule référence possible au principe de la séparation des pouvoirs est la référence à l'article 16. Cependant, même si la référence n'est pas explicite, de nombreux articles de la constitution de 1958 s'inspirent de ce principe, et c'est dans celle-ci une séparation classique mais souple des pouvoirs qui a été mise en place. [...]

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